Meissen®瓷器的商标和编号


Before the definitive introduction of the blue swords mark various markings were made: Merkurstab- and Drachenmarken, pseudo-Chinese marks. Since 1722, the "crossed blue swords" were used as trademarks. Besides there were many markings.

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"Johanneums" number:

From 1721 all porcelains of the Royal Collection in the Japanese Palace in Dresden were marked with engraved, sometimes only painted, signs. "Johanneum number", since the collection was kept in the 19th century in the Johanneum in Dresden (a building named after King John of Saxony). (N = followed by a one to three digit Arabic number)


Monogram brands:

Ligatur aus A und R = Augustus Rex
Ligatur aus F und A = Kurfürst Friedrich August II. (1733)
K.P.M. = Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur
M.P.M. = Meissener Porzellan-Manufaktur
K.P.F. = Königliche Porzellan-Fabrik
K.S.P.M. = Königlich Sächsische Porzellan-Manufaktur

Owner brands:

K.C.P.C. = Königlich-Churfürstliche Pillnitzer Conditorei
K.H.C. = Königliche Hof-Conditorei
K.H.C.W. = Königliche Hof-Conditorei Warschau
K.H.K. = Königliche Hof-Küche
K.H.K.W. = Königliche Hof-Küche Warschau
K.P.C. = Königliche Pillnitzer Conditorei
K.P.K. = Königliche Pillnitzer Küche
K.S.C. = Königliche Silber-Cammer
C.H.C. = Churfüstliche Hof-Conditorei
C.H.K. = Churfürstliche Hof-Küche
C.P.C. = Churfürstliche Pillnitzer Conditorei

The "crossed swords":

The first inspector of the manufactory, Johann Melchior Steinbrück submitted in 1722 the proposal to use the Kurschwerter from the Saxon spa coat of arms to mark Meissen Porcelain®. The swords mark is one of the oldest used today and most well-known mark of the world. The crossed swords wrote brand history. The swords mark painted in underglaze blue comes in many different shapes and sizes. They were pressed in on red stoneware and later on biscuit pots. Glazed porcelains carry the blue-painted swords under the glaze on the underside of the object.

1722-1762: 
For technical reasons, the underside of the base or the base was often left unglazed in early models. However, the unglazed sherd only weakens the blue, so that early models often have no or only an indistinctly visible brand. For this reason, the brand of swords was applied to the rear of the glaze from about 1745-1750 on the rear or at the lower edge of the base, usually in a tiny, small format, and therefore strongly worn.

1763-1823: 
Often (but not regularly!) One point was added to the swords between 1763-1773. Under the direction of Count Marcolini, a star was added to the swords between the handles, and the stamped or engraved triangular mark with the swords (sometimes with a star on the tip) was used to mark the unglazed sponge cake. 1817-1824 the Blaumaler added Roman numbers "I" and "II" to the swords (composition of masses)

1824-1923:
Between 1824 and circa 1850, the stamps were painted quite negligently. This quarter of a century is therefore referred to as a so-called "lubrication period". These mostly relatively small swords from the first half of the 19th century are often difficult to distinguish from those of the 18th century and are occasionally confused with the stamps of the period around 1730-1740. Around 1850, the swords were created with slightly curved blades and a point as a pommel at each end of the handle (referred to by the trade as "Knauf-Schwerter").

From 1924: 
Under the direction of Max Adolf Pfeiffer, 1924-1934, the swords carried a point between the tips. 1945-1947, the two swords were connected by a bow below. From 1947 uniform and slightly inwardly curved swords are in use.

"Onion Pattern": 
In order to make the underglaze blue onion pattern decoration of the Meissen® manufactory easily distinguishable from the many imitations that have been produced since the middle of the 19th century and are still in use today, the swords have been repeated in the decor since 1888.

White goods:
Starting from 1919 one characterized white goods, which should receive in principle no colored decoration, with a blind postmark: swords over writing "knows"

Underglaze blue decoration at the edge of the underside starting from 1950:

1951-1953 ein Punkt unterhalb der Schwertermarke
1953-1957 ein senkrechter Strich unterhalb der Schwertermarke
1957-1972 ein waagerechter Strich unterhalb der Schwertermarke
1972-1980 ein senkrechter Strich neben der Schwertermarke
Ab 1980 ein waagerechter Strich neben der Schwertermarke
Neben dem gekreuzten Schwerterpaar stehen diverse Kennzeichnungen von Pressmarken, 
Ritzmarken, Malernummern, Jubiläumsmarken und Sondersignets:

Repairer's-number:
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A maximum of three-digit Arabic number, which is stamped into the wet mass. It is assigned to a specific Bossierer and serves the production control. The Bossierer puts the individual pieces of the figure together.



Year-marks:
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From 1948, the Bossierer number is added a year sign. Initially in geometric form, from 1980 in alphabetical form, the letters I, Q, U, V, X, Y, Z were omitted. For 1999 there is an A and B. Since 2000 irregular letter connections are given.


Shape number (model number):

The indicator under which the model is registered. The number is engraved on the underside or sometimes laterally engraved or incised. At the beginning the manufactory gave single-digit to four-digit numbers (1-3000), starting from 1764 in alphabetical order (A 1 - Z 99), from 1851 followed the second alphabet (A 100 - Z 300), (since the letter T was given irregularly) After 1973 all model numbers were replaced by a five-digit Arabic number (50001-99999), currently the manufactory uses a code with a letter-number combination (for example: 90M36) Attention! All registers contain irregularities and changes. Some models have been modified or deleted and the number has been re-assigned. In some cases, different models have the same form number. With manually scribed alphabetic model numbers, the old spelling can easily lead to confusion of some letters (B and R, L and S, V and Y, H and X etc.)

From 1924, the models of foreign, contractually bound to the manufacture of artists bound with the letter A and a four-digit number, starting with A 1001, to distinguish them from manufactured in-house models, which were still registered with the old order. This new regulation was retroactive: models that had been purchased before 1924 and had received an old number, now got the new A-number with four-digit number. There are a total of 300 models with A numbers known (A 1001 - A 1300). For this reason, a model may have received four different shape numbers over time, for example: "Leuchter-Reiter" by Gerhard Marcks, model year: 1919, model number: F 272 (old model) Number, 1919-1923 and 1935-1972), A 1010 (Pfeiffer time, 1924-1934), 79303 (new form number for white porcelain, from 1973), 85006 (new form number for Böttger stoneware, from 1973)

Mass sign:
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Character indicating the mass offset (mixing ratio of raw materials for ceramic masses). On older Böttger stoneware pieces are mass specs such as L 209, L 230 or L 241. The model number is similar to this mass specs, they should not be confused with the mass characters!

Painter number (Staff number):

A maximum of four-digit Arabic number painted in color on the bottom. It is personally assigned to a specific painter and serves for production control. From 1973 placed at vessels immediately adjacent to the six-digit decor number, separated from it by a slash. Some early Blaumaler called the pieces with their initials, some with extra dots, dashes and numbers.

Decor-Number:

The decor number is assigned to certain paintings and decorations. Since the 1970s, a six-digit Arabic number, separated by a slash before the painter number, depending on the type of painting applied to the glaze or in underglaze color. Formerly a one to a maximum of four-digit Arabic number (possibly with additions of lowercase letters).

Signatures:

Exhibited artist and painter signatures or monograms on Meissen Porcelain® are very rare in the 18th century and in the first half of the 19th century. Later, well-known artist models were more often labeled with the name or monogram of the artist, often with the year of model making. The signature or monogram is stamped into the moisture-proof mass. The artist's personal artist's signature is drawn in color (over or under glaze) or in gold.

Artist Monograms: 

E. A. = Emmerich Andresen
E P B = Emil Paul Börner
VB ligiert = Volkmar Bretschneider
AE ligiert = Andreas Ehret
OF = Olaf Fieber
E. GR. = Ernst Grämer
AK ligiert = Alfred König
RS ligiert = Rudi Stolle
PS ligiert = Peter Strang
SW = Sabine Wachs
PW ligiert = Paul Walther
HW ligiert = Heinz Werner
ZP ligiert = Ludwig Zepner

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Original pieces: 

1918, the production of Urstücken (artist's copies) was introduced. Prizes carry the stamp mark "of 11 pieces No." followed by a scribed number indicating the number of the piece (1-11). Rarely is the stamp "of 5 pieces Nr." Followed by the scratched number (1-5). On Böttgersteinzeug® there was the stamp mark "of 55 formations No." followed by a number (1-55).

Jubilee marks in blue (underglaze):

1710 -1910: 200-Anniversary of the manufactory Meissen®
1710 - 1960: 250-Anniversary of the manufactory Meissen®
1982: Johann Friedrich Böttger to his 300th birthday
1739 - 1989: 250-birthday of the "onion plattern
2000: six different special stamps for the limited edition "ZeitZeichen"


Unique pieces:

A unique piece is created in the artistic workshops of the Meissen® manufactory without the aid of models and can not be produced in series for this reason. Unique pieces are thus unrepeatable individual pieces, signed and provided with a unique number (consecutive numbering within one year and the corresponding year). There are unique specimens in Meissen® since 1982 officially in the range.

Sondersignets in Gold (aufglasur):

1996: Johann Gregorius Höroldt Monogrammed for his 300th birthday: J. G. H.
1997: 275-Anniversary of the blue sword mark (275 in gold)
1999: Century collection (three intertwined numbers 9 and number 1)
2002: Collection "Couple-wise" (two entwined numbers 2)
2004: Collection "Sinn-Bilder" (stylized acanthus flowers)
2006: Johann Joachim Kaendler Monogrammed for his 300th birthday: J. J. K.
2010: Anniversary Collection 300 years of manufacture Meissen®
(three intertwined numbers 300 with C, limitation number) Since 2005: Edition "Limited Masterpieces" (ligated letters LM with corresponding numbering)

Protected word marks:

from 1919 Böttgersteinzeug®
from 1972 Meissen®
from 1985 Meissener Porzellan®

Wheel-cut lines or Cancellation marks:

The different variants and manipulations in various periods have been described differently in the literature. In general, the following applies:
 - a sanding line for undecorated white goods or II. Choice
 - two sanding lines II. Choice
 - three and four sanding lines III. and IV. Option (sold only to manufactory employees)

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- five sharpening strokes or two crossed sharpening strokes 
for pieces remaining in the manufactory for use